Secondary Evidence Definition Literature
When writing a research paper, it is important to use primary and secondary sources to understand the gist of a topic. It is difficult to decide and identify primary and secondary sources. Researchers often experience this situation when writing research papers, papers, or journal articles. Finding the right source is the most important factor when citing information. A researcher needs to know what is the best source (primary or secondary) for their research project. Here are some points to help researchers understand and distinguish between primary and secondary sources – Primary sources provide direct evidence for a topic. Secondary sources, on the other hand, are analyses based on existing primary sources. For example, if one were to research the American Civil War, the primary source would be a letter written by a soldier who fought in the war, while a secondary source would be a history book about the war. If your goal is to analyze the government`s economic policy, a newspaper article on a new policy is a secondary source. But if your goal is to analyze media coverage of economic issues, the newspaper article is a primary source. To determine whether something can be used as a primary or secondary source in your research, there are a few simple questions you can ask yourself: Generally, secondary sources themselves are described as review articles or meta-analyses.
After hearing the arguments of the parties, the court decides whether or not to admit secondary evidence after determining whether the evidence is indeed authentic or whether it would be unfair to admit the duplicate. However, if a party questions whether a claimed writing ever existed or whether a writing, recording or photograph is the original, the trial judge will make the final decision. The trier of fact is the judge in the case of a hearing; In a jury trial, the trier of fact is the jury. Search: “secondary evidence” in Oxford Reference » Evidence that naturally suggests better evidence (e.g., a copy of a document). See Primary evidence. Anything that summarizes, evaluates or interprets primary sources can be a secondary source. If a source gives you an overview of background information or presents another researcher`s ideas on your topic, it`s probably a secondary source. Sources of information or evidence are often classified as primary, secondary or tertiary material. These classifications are based on the originality of the material and the proximity of the source or origin.
This tells the reader whether the author is reporting first-hand information or conveying the experiences and opinions of others considered second-hand. It can be difficult to determine whether a source is primary, secondary or tertiary. Below is a description of the three categories of information and examples to help you decide. Primary sources are often considered the most credible when it comes to providing evidence to support your argument because they give you direct evidence of what you`re looking for. However, it is up to you to ensure that the information they provide is reliable and accurate. A primary source is a first-hand record of an event. These are the events or evidence that were first described without interpretation or comment. This source gives researchers direct access to the research object and shows original thoughts, reports of discoveries or sharing new information. Primary sources are more credible as evidence, but good research uses both primary and secondary sources.
I`m just trying to familiarize myself with primary and secondary sources, especially for the type of essay I need to write. I look at the analysis of an album and I talk about the different musical techniques it contains. To do this, I need to do some research and find articles/videos, etc. related to these techniques, as well as to the history of music, etc. When writing a scientific article, citing your sources is the most important aspect. Academic sources are scholarly books, articles and research papers that are peer-reviewed, credible and authoritative. However, there is confusion among researchers as to which literature is considered a source and what type of source to use. A secondary source is anything that describes, interprets, evaluates or analyzes information from primary sources. Common examples include: Secondary evidence is evidence that has been reproduced from an original document or replaced by an original element. For example, a photocopy of a document or photo would be considered secondary evidence. Another example would be an exact replica of an engine part contained in a motor vehicle. If the engine part is not the same as that of the motor vehicle at issue in the case, it is considered secondary evidence.
If you`re researching the causes of World War II, a recent documentary about the war is a secondary source. But if you`re looking for the cinematic techniques used in historical documentaries, documentary is a primary source. Primary sources provide raw information and first-hand evidence. Examples include interview transcripts, statistical data and illustrations. A primary source gives you direct access to the topic of your research. Remember that all primary and secondary sources should be cited to avoid plagiarism. You can use Scribbr`s free citation generator to do this! In addition to understanding the difference between primary and secondary sources, a crucial aspect of sources is determining their credibility before they are cited. Researchers should thoroughly examine the sources they want to cite in their research study. This will help them avoid including false information in articles, research papers, journals or editorial work. If you are conducting a literature review, you can consult secondary sources to get a complete overview of your topic.
If you want to mention an article or study that you find cited in a secondary source, find the original source and cite it directly. Secondary sources in history and humanities are usually books or scientific journals, from the perspective of a later interpreter, especially a later scholar. In the humanities, a peer-reviewed article is always a secondary source. The delineation of sources into primary and secondary sources first appeared in the field of historiography, when historians tried to identify and classify the sources of historiography. In academic writing, an important purpose of source classification is to determine the independence and reliability of sources.  In the original scientific literature, historians rely on primary sources read in the context of scientific interpretations.  If you don`t analyze the article itself, but only use it to get background information or facts about your topic, then the article is a secondary source. Rule 1004 of the Federal Rules of Evidence lists specific exceptions to the best evidence rule. Under Rule 1004, secondary evidence of a letter, recording or photograph is admissible if (1) all originals are lost or destroyed, unless they were lost or destroyed in bad faith by the party seeking to present the secondary evidence; (2) no original may be obtained by judicial proceedings; 3. the opposing party is in possession of the original on the merits and does not produce it after being informed in good time that the evidence would be the subject of a judicial hearing; or (4) the original evidence is not closely related to an issue relevant to the case. When citing a secondary source, it is usually not to analyze it directly.
Instead, you`ll likely test his arguments against new evidence or use his ideas to formulate your own. Secondary sources provide second-hand information and comments from other researchers. Examples include journal articles, reviews, and academic books. A secondary source describes, interprets or synthesizes primary sources. Whether a source is considered primary or secondary in a particular context may change depending on the current state of knowledge in the field.  For example, if a document refers to the contents of an earlier but undiscovered letter, that document may be considered “primary” because it is closest to an original source, but if the letter is found later, it may be considered “secondary”.  In science, a secondary source is a document or record that obtains or discusses information originally presented elsewhere. A secondary source is opposed to a primary source, which is an original source of the information discussed; A primary source can be a person with direct knowledge of a situation or a document created by such a person.
SECONDARY EVIDENCE. This type of evidence, which is admissible in case of loss of primary evidence and becomes the best evidence as a result of this event. 3 bouv. Inst. No. 3055. In the legal field, the classification of sources is important because the persuasiveness of a source usually depends on its history. Primary sources may include cases, constitutions, statutes, bylaws, and other authoritative sources of legal authority, while secondary sources of law may include books that include guiding principles of case reports, articles, and encyclopedias.  Legal authors generally prefer to cite primary sources, as only primary sources are authoritative and precedent-setting, while secondary sources are persuasive at best.  If you use the film to obtain general information or analysis about your topic – for example, to learn about a historical event or scientific discovery – the film is a secondary source.